Assorted CD-ROMs of astronomical data
The following CD-ROMs are (or will be) available. Project Pluto has no association with these organizations (other than in using their datasets). However, Guide users sometimes ask about the availability of such data.
Selected Astronomical Catalogs, Vol. 3
The Astronomical Data Center (ADC) has announced the availability of a third CD-ROM of assorted astronomical datasets (a list of the datasets is on this site). The previous two CDs were of extensive use in creating previous versions of Guide, and some of the datasets on this new CD will prove useful in Guide 6.0. As the document makes clear, many of the datasets are revised versions of datasets on the first two CDs.
The following information is from the letter sent out by the ADC.
The cost of each CD-ROM is US $10 (foreign orders add $5 for shipping and handling). Both ASCII and FITS versions are available, and can be purchased separately. Payment can be made by VISA, MasterCard, American Express, check or money order payable to Hughes STX Corporation in US DOLLARS on a US BANK. If you wish to pay by credit card, please FAX the NSSDC Request Coordination Office at (301) 286 1635, and ensure that your name and FAX number are clearly identified. If you wish to pay by check or money order, please mail your request to the Request Coordination Office, National Space Science Data Center, Code 633.4, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771. (Internet: email@example.com) or telephone (301) 286 6695.
PGC-1996 (Principal Galaxy Catalog 1996)
LEDA (Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database)
The new PGC-ROM 1996 gives access to the largest compilation of individual galaxies ever made.
The main astrophysical parameters are provided for more than 100,000 galaxies.
Comprehensive sample programs in FORTRAN are also provided on the CD-ROM. They should work on any UNIX workstation. A DOS/Windows (TM) version is also available.
Complete and return attached form to the address overleaf. Orders can also be placed by fax. You will receive the package with the bill.
ORDER FORM OF PGC-ROM 1996:
Date and signature:
For PGC-ROM 1996 with Fortran programs: 240 FF (US $48)
Software for DOS/Windows: 100 FF (US $20)
Delivery in Europe: 10 FF ($2)
Delivery elsewhere: 20 FF ($5)
FAX or MAIL orders to:LEDA, Observatoire de Lyon F69561 Saint-Genis Laval CEDEX (FRANCE)
FAX: (33) 78 86 83 86
Click here for information about ordering the raw data, in ASCII format, from the European Space Agency
(The ordering information also gives some specifications concerning the precision of the datasets that might be of interest to you.)
The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogs form the basis for Guide's display of stars for about a million of the brightest stars (down to about magnitude 11). They were gathered by the European Space Agency's Hipparcos satellite and released in June 1997, and represent an extreme leap forward over every previous catalog.
The reason is that the satellite, being above the atmosphere, got astrometric (positional) data ten times more accurate than any previously available, and got far more precise magnitude data than ever seen before. Because of this positional precision, it was also able to get good parallax (distance) data for many of these stars; ground-based data has never been very accurate, except for the nearest stars.
One point should be cleared up quickly. The Hipparcos catalog contains data for 118,218 stars, down to about mag 7 (with some fainter stars); it is at the highest level of precision. The Tycho catalog contains over 1 million stars, that were not so precisely measured in either position or in magnitude; it's complete to magnitude 10.5, with some fainter stars. Tycho is still far more precise than anything else out there, but it's not quite in the same league with Hipparcos.
For some people, the fact that Guide uses Hipparcos/Tycho data is not very significant (it's unquestionably an advantage, but it may be "overkill" for your needs.) Click here for a discussion of the benefits of Hipparcos/Tycho data; it should allow you to decide whether Guide's use of Hipparcos/Tycho data really matters to you at all.
When Guide is showing you a star chart, you can click on a star with your mouse and bring up full data on it (not only from Hipparcos, but from other catalogs as well). Click here to see an example of what Hipparcos will tell you about an example star, Eta Aquilae.
One slight drawback to the Tycho data was that the proper motion data was not of wonderful quality. The satellite was only observing for a few years, not long enough to get a long baseline of observations. To repair this, the Tycho data was combined with older positions from the Astrographic Catalog (AC) to get excellent proper motions, in the Astrographic Catalog/Tycho (ACT) dataset. The current batch of Guide CDs use this catalog, not the proper motions from the original Tycho catalog.
Ordering the raw ASCII Hipparcos/Tycho data: You can get a set of six CD-ROMs containing full results of the Hipparcos mission, from the European Space Agency. No software is provided with the disks, but it's all in plain ASCII text and is quite well documented; if you're a programmer, making use of them is not at all difficult. (But you do have to write some software to make use of them!)
The following details about these catalogs come from the order brochure mailed out by the European Space Agency.
Invitation for Subscriptions
Final results from the ESA Hipparcos space astrometry mission will be made widely available in June 1997. The results will be available in three formats:
-- A 16-volume hard-bound printed catalogue, containing descriptions of the data reduction techniques, along with the Hipparcos catalogue and related annexes, plus an ASCII version of the Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues and annexes in a set of 6 CD-ROMs;
-- A subset of the above consisting of Volume 1 (Introduction and Guide to the Data) and the ASCII CD-ROM set;
-- Celestia 2000: a CD-ROM package containing the Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues and annexes along with interrogation software.
Only a limited number of the hard-bound printed catalogue will be produced. To avoid future requests exceeding the available supply, you are invited to reserve your copy now, by returning the subscription form before 15 Jan 1997 to: Hipparcos Catalogue Subscriptions Astrophysics Division (SA) ESTEC PO Box 299 2200 AG Noordwijk (THE NETHERLANDS) Fax +31 71 565 4690 See also http://astro.estec.esa.nl/SA-general/Projects/Hipparcos/hipparcos.html for a WWW order form
Please reserve for me the following (prices include post & packing to any destination):
___ set(s) of the 16-volume printed catalogue (with ASCII CD-ROMs) @ 650 Dfl ($400) per set
___ set(s) of Introduction & Guide to the Data, with ASCII CD-ROM set @ 165 Dfl ($100) per set
___ set(s) of Celestia 2000 @ 80 Dfl ($50) per set
The number of hard-bound volumes produced will be based on the response to this announcement. An invoice will be sent to all subscribers in early 1997. On receipt of payment your requested product(s) will be delivered to the address filled in above.Hipparcos Catalogue Subscriptions Astrophysics Division (SA) ESTEC PO Box 299 2200 AG Noordwijk The Netherlands
FAX +31 71 565 4690
Astrographic Catalog (AC) CD-ROM
The AC 2000 and ACT catalogs are both available on free CD-ROMs from the USNO (US Naval Observatory). Send your requests for these disks to Sean E. Urban at the USNO. They are also available via FTP from the USNO ftp site... but they are both very large catalogs!
The AC catalog contains data for about 4 million stars, from plates imaged about a century ago (the mean epoch is 1907). It therefore contains about four times as many stars as Tycho, and about a quarter as many as the Guide Star Catalog. For each star, a J2000 position, photographic magnitude, and the date of the exposure are given.
This catalog was a major endeavor early in this century; data for each star was quite painfully extracted. There's a very good article about it in the June 1998 Sky & Telescope ("The Astrographic Catalogue: A Century of Work Pays Off").
By itself, this dataset would have to be considered of limited use. A century of proper motion has rendered it somewhat obsolete. However, it has been combined with Tycho data to produce the ACT; this catalog is far from useless, as the following section describes.
If you've acquired the AC2000 CD-ROM, then you can show those stars in Guide. Click here for information about AC2000 display in Guide.
Astrographic/Tycho (ACT) CD-ROM
The ACT and AC 2000 catalogs are both available on free CD-ROMs from the USNO (US Naval Observatory). Send your requests for these disks to Sean E. Urban at the USNO. They are also available via FTP from the USNO ftp site... but they are both very large catalogs!
One slight problem with the Tycho data is that the proper motions are not very good. Proper motions from older catalogs such as the PPM and SAO were based on much longer time spans, which helped to offset the poorer measurement accuracy. The Hipparcos satellite was not able to run for several decades; if it had, we might get excellent proper motions from it.
The result is that positions based on Tycho data are excellent for times near 1991 (the midpoint of the satellite observations) and are slowly getting worse as time passes. One way to fix this problem is to improve proper motion accuracy; to do this, the USNO derived proper motions by combining data from the Astrographic Catalog with Tycho positions. This allows measuring proper motions over a time span of about a century, resulting in absolutely wonderful proper motion data. And this, in turn, can make Tycho data almost as precise today as it was in 1991.
Guide 7.0 uses the ACT proper motion data, in place of Tycho data. Most people will not see the difference, but there are two groups of people who will care deeply about this. One is people doing astrometry with the Charon software. The other group will be people examining asteroid occultations of stars; Guide can show the paths of these events (click here to read about occultation/eclipse path display in Guide) , but use of ACT data has made such predictions somewhat better. (See the February 1998 issue of Sky & Telescope, page 86, for details about this.)
Guide 6.0 used the original Tycho data, but one can get it to use ACT data by going through a few extra hoops. Click here for details on how the ACT can be displayed and used in Guide 6.0.
USNO A1.0 Catalog
The USNO A1.0 catalog is the current recordholder for the World's Largest Star Catalog, with nearly 500 million stars. It covers the entire sky, and was created by scanning in Palomar and UK-SERC plates. Both red and blue plates were scanned, and objects appearing on only one plate were thrown out. This helps to evade the GSC problem of spurious objects, and also means that color data is available through comparing the red and blue magnitudes.
Also, the precision of the positions is already better than that in the GSC. The authors would like to recalibrate USNO using the Astrographic Catalog/Tycho data, resulting in still better precision. This version, the A2.0 catalog, is now available.
The A1.0 is distributed on a set of ten CD-ROMs, but is available only to researchers with a demonstrated need for the data. Unlike the GSC, it cannot be reproduced for profit; it's highly doubtful that this catalog will see use in commercial software (though Guide and Charon both do allow use of A1.0, if desired.) Also, with the release of A2.0, I doubt that A1.0 CDs will still be available.
Though the USNO A1.0 CDs are not widely available, you can still download small portions from Lowell Observatory, which has set up a means to request data for a given region in RA/dec. You can get the data as ASCII text or in binary form; the latter can then be displayed in Guide or used for astrometry with Charon.
USNO SA1.0 and SA2.0 Catalogs
The USNO A1.0 catalog consumes ten CDs. USNO A2.0 consumes eleven CDs. Neither is very widely available, since USNO distributes them at no charge and can't afford to make millions of sets. To combat this problem, the USNO also provides a single-CD version of each catalog, called "SA1.0" and "SA2.0" respectively. These contain 10% of the A1.0 or A2.0 stars (about 50 million each), in the same format as A1.0 or A2.0. They are not the brightest 10%, however; they are the 10% best suited for use in astrometry, because of their well- determined positional accuracy and because they provide a very even coverage of the sky (the density of stars is practically constant everywhere). Unlike A1.0 or A2.0, these CDs are freely available from USNO. (At this point, I suspect that only SA2.0 is available. But this is just as well; SA2.0 is somewhat superior to SA1.0 in some respects. Like the A2.0 from whence it came, SA2.0 is based on the ACT catalog. SA1.0, like A1.0, is GSC based, and therefore has some serious astrometric problems.)
SA1.0 and 2.0 are nearly useless for making star charts, because 90% of the stars are omitted; no recognizable patterns remain when you do that. For similar reasons, it doesn't work very well with the Charon astrometry software, which expects to match star patterns in a catalog to star patterns in a CCD image. However, it can be used with Charon, if some care is taken; click here for details.
SA1.0 can be displayed in Guide 7.0, without qualification. SA2.0 can be displayed in Guide 7.0, if you download current software and a small index file specially created for SA2.0; click here for details.
USNO A2.0 Catalog
As is discussed on the USNO PMM page, the A1.0 has some significant astrometric and photometric problems, mostly inherited from the Guide Star Catalog. A new version, the A2.0 catalog, has been calibrated using the Astrographic Catalog/Tycho (ACT) data, leading to considerable improvement in this regard. It is now available over the Internet, and on a set of eleven CDs (A1.0 only consumed ten disks, but A2.0 has a few extra stars in it.) The full set of CDs is available on request from Dave Monet of the USNO's Flagstaff (Arizona) Station.
Be warned that availability of the 11-disk set is probably limited. The USNO doesn't charge for these disks, and doesn't have an infinite budget. I'd assume that (as before) the single-CD SA2.0 will be more readily available.
You can also grab A2.0 data through Lowell Observatory. Right now, you can get A1.0 data through the Strasbourg Data Centre (CDS) in France , or through the ESO (European Southern Observatory) site in Germany. It seems to me a safe bet that these two sites will also be switching to A2.0 as soon as they can.
Using A2.0 and/or SA2.0 in Guide: You can, without question, use A2.0 downloaded from the Internet in Guide 6.0 or 7.0. This required no modification whatsoever to the software, because the format did not change. Do be aware, though, that the plate information did change in certain parts of the sky. When you click for 'more info' on an A2.0 star, therefore, Guide will give inaccurate data as to which plates were used.
The A2.0 CDs were released after the Guide 7.0 CDs were made, so Guide 7.0 "as is" cannot read A2.0 CDs. However, a fix is now available that allows you to do it; click here for details on how to use A2.0 in Guide.
Tycho-2 catalogue: The only data I've found on this project comes from this Web page provided by the authors of this new catalogue (E. Høg, C. Fabricius, and V.V Makarov of Copenhagen University Observatory; U. Bastian and P. Schwekendiek of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut in Heidelberg, Germany; and A. Wicenek of the ESO.) They provide a paragraph on the Web site, plus a link to a PostScript version of their paper describing Tycho-2. For those who can't print out PostScript, here are the high points:
The Tycho-2 catalog does not involve any additional observations by the Hipparcos satellite; instead, the original data gathered between 1989 and 1993 is to be reprocessed using better techniques and faster hardware that were not available for the "original" Tycho catalog, also known as Tycho-1. The resulting catalog will contain "good results" for about 2.5 million stars brighter than about Vt=12 (as opposed to Tycho-1, which got data for a little over 1 million stars to about magnitude Vt=11.5.) Not only will the new catalog contain 2.5 times as many stars; the photometric and astrometric data generated will be more precise (smaller error bars) than that in Tycho-1. Also, many double stars not resolved in Tycho-1 will be resolved in Tycho-2.
It's not clear when this dataset will be made available. A recent post on the Minor Planet Mailing List stated that it is "due out shortly since it is just reprocessing the original data". I devoutly hope this is true...
I expect that this dataset will be of tremendous use in astrometry. At present, I know of only one Charon user (Gordon Garradd) using Tycho/ACT to do astrometry. He has a large enough field of view so that, with some planning, he can get four or five Tycho-1 stars in his field of view. The resulting data is of wonderful quality, with small astrometric residuals suitable for last-minute astrometry to improve occultation predictions and for use in computing the orbit of 433 Eros for the NEAR mission. But very few people have big enough CCDs to use Tycho for routine astrometry. Tycho-2 should make this far easier. It should also evade another bane of Tycho/ACT use: Gordon usually finds that to get good data on faint asteroids, the exposure has to be long enough to saturate the Tycho/ACT stars. Having Tycho run "deeper" by half a magnitude will help here.
How Tycho-2 was created: (You need know none of this to make use of Tycho-2, but it is interesting.) Tycho-1 worked by examining the data and considering a "detection" of a star to occur if a certain signal/noise ratio was reached (1.5 or 1.8). At the time, a better approach was considered, in which data from two consecutive measurements would be combined. The result would be a better S/N ratio, and the limiting magnitude would be improved by about 0.4 magnitudes. The authors of the paper state that "this was beyond the available capabilities with respect to software development and computing facilities when discussed in 1991".
For Tycho-2, a still better solution is to be used. The data from all measurements of a given star are to be used. It sounds a bit like a more sophisticated version of the process used in CCD imaging, where you may not detect an object in four images, but averaging the four improves the signal/noise enough to make the object detectable. The paper gives full details on this, and was reasonably understandable to this non-expert (unusual; these things usually seem written to make the subject as opaque as possible.)