Overview of Chiropractic

Last Updated ; 1999.02.14
1. What is Chiropractic?
2. History of Chiropractic
3. Philosophy of Chiropractic
4. Main Ajustment systems(Techniques)
5. Education
6. Peculiar situation in Japan

1: What is Chiropractic ?

In September 1895, Daniel David Palmer(a magnetic healer) adjusted a back lump on Harvey Lillard, a janitor in the same building as Dr. Palmer, with his hands in Davenport, Iowa. Mr. Lillard had hurt his back and had complained of hearing problems for over 17 years. After several adjustments, Mr. Lillard's hearing was restored. Then Dr. Palmer devised a new healing art by adjusting spinal segment from above fact. He named his healing art as "Chiropractic" from Greek after consulting with his patient Minister Samuel H. Weed.

Chiro(cheiros) means "hand" and praktos means "done by". Dr. Palmer put them together to create Chiropractic, meaning "done by hand" or simply meaning "hand manipulation."

There was a kind of spinal manipulation in ancient Egypt, but the founder of spinal corrective therapy in modern times was D. D. Palmer.

Now there are 16 chiropractic colleges in U.S., and about 46,000 chiropractors have a degree of Doctor of Chiropractic in U.S. And Canada, Australia each have two chiropractic colleges, U.K., France, Denmark and South Africa each have one chiropractic college. There are about 15,000 chiropractors in Japan. Chiropractic is wide spread more than 50 countries in the world.


2: History of Chiropractic - Resume -


Daniel Devid Palmer (1846-1913) : Founder of Chiropractic

1845 : born in Port Perry, Ontario, Canada

1886 : began hand magnet healing.

1895 : named his healing art as Chiropractic

1895 : Roentogen discovered X-ray.

1896 : established Palmer School in Davenport, Iowa.

1901 : Roentogen won the first Nobel Prize in Physics.

1906 : was put in prison for 23 days because of a violation of medical law.
( In those days in U.S., medical doctors had to report themselves in medical law, but he declared that he was not a medical doctor but a "chiropractor".)

1906 : after he left prison, he traveled to wide spread chiropractic
and he established several chiropractic schools.
: has found Meric Recoil Technique

Bartlett Joshua Palmer (1882-1961) : Developer of Chiropractic

1882 : born in What Cheer, Iowa.

1902 : graduated from Palmer School.

1913 : Chiropractic license was approved in Minnesota, the first state in U.S.

1906 : took up position of Principal of Palmer School because of his father's imprisonment.

1910 : began to apply X-ray for taking images of body skeleton.

1915 : proposed a concept of Major Subluxation.
"Displacements of spinal segment which is causing deterioration of the innate self healing power are only a few in the skeletal system in the body."

1930-1935: estsblished Hole In One Theory.
This theory contains following idea.
There is only one major subluxation in a body, and it is almost always found at upper cervical spine. B.J.Palmer had created Toggle Recoil Technique only for upper cervical spine (C1 or C2) based on this theory.

1935-1956: Only Toggle Recoil Technique was taught at Palmer School.

1956-1961: Sometimes minor subluxation was adjusted.
1974 : Chiropractic license was approved in Louisiana, the last state for all in U.S.

1975 : International Spinal Manipulation Conference was held
by American National Health Insutitute.

1978 : "New Zealand Report" on chiropractic was submitted by the New Zealand government.
Inglis, BD, Chiropractic in New Zealand: Report of the Commission of Inquiry, Government Printer, New Zealand, 1979
The abstract of the New Zealand Report can be found on Dr. Zikmunds' homepage.

1982 : Some chiropractors filed a suit against American Medical Association for its monopoly
and campaign over TV, radio and every medium to boycott chiropractic.

1987 : The court ruled on above point that American Medical Association un-monopolistic.

1988 : World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC) was organized.
50 countries were members of it.

1990 : Long term British study supports chiropractic.
"Chiropractic is obviously effective for low back pain of mechanical origin." Funded by the Medical Research Council, the National Back Pain Association, the European Chiropractors Union, and the King Edward's Hospital Fund for London.

Meade TW, et al. "Low back pain of mechanical origin: randomised comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment." British Medical Journal Vol. 300, 1990, pp. 1431-1437.

Meade TW, et al. "Randomized comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient management for low back pain: results from extended follow-up." British Medical Journal Vol. 311, 1995, pp. 349-351.
The abstruct of the Meade Study can be found on Dr. Zikmunds' homepage.

1991 : "Rand Study" supports chiropractic effectiveness for low back pain.
Shekelle PG, Adams AH, Chassin MR, et al. "The appropriateness of spinal manipulation for low-back pain. Project overview and literature review." RAND STUDY-CHIROPRACTIC REPORT Vol.5 No.6, RAND Corp, 1991.
The abstract of the Rand Study can be found on Dr. Zikmunds' homepage.

1991 : WFC Conference were held in Toronto Canada with American Low Back Pain Academy.
Japan was accepted in WFC

1993 : WFC Conference was held in London England with WHO.
WFC and WHO desided to publish "The Role of Chiropractic in Working Health." manual together. ( It is planning to publish in 1997.)

1993 : Study for the effectiveness of chiropractic was submitted funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health.
Pran Manga, Ph.D., et al. "A Study to Examine the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Chiropractic Management of Low-Back Pain"
The executive summary of the Manga Report (full text) can be found on Dr. Smith's homepage.

1995 : Chiropractic's 100th year anniversary.
Some commemorations were held at various cities in U.S.

1997 : World Health Organization(WHO) has authorized WFC as one of the NGO(Nongovernmental Organization), January

1997 : WFC WORLD CHIROPRACTIC CONGRESS TOKYO was held in June successfully
: supported by WHO


3: Philosophy & Basic Concepts of Chiropractic

[ Your potential healing ability will heal yourself ]

"Father of Medicine", Hippocrates in ancient Greece thought "illness" was a result of a battle between injuring health force and our innate healing ability.

This Innate Healing Ability (Innate Intelligence) is always maintaining and restoring our total body. Any kind of therapy, such as surgical operation, medicine, physical therapy, etc., just helps Innate Healing Ability anyone has by nature. It is just you that heals yourself.

Also D. D. Palmer thought if we could make full use of our innate healing ability for disease, prevent diseases, and control our health. Then he devised "Chiropractic" by means of spinal adjustment.

Chiropractic is the very healing art based upon spirit and philosophy of Hippocrates.

[ Innate Healing Ability is sent to total body from the brain ]

Following are basic thoughts of Chiropractic.

Innate Intelligence ( =innate healing ability = life force) that mankind has by nature rises from the brain and is transmitted to all organs, tissues, cells by means of nerve impulse flow.

When the Innate Intelligence from the brain is blocked by spinal malposition, it can not reach to total body tissures, and this causes disorder of health. We call these spinal malposition as Major Subluxation.

Chiropractors aim to perfectly raise patient's Innate Intelligence by manually adjusting major subluxation searching by means of X-ray alalysis, palpation, change of bilateral leg length, and muscle testing etc..

But, this needs carefulness and diligence in pursuit of technique. Chiropractor must study throughly and train practically for many years to master chiropractic techniques. Skilled chiropractor will be able to adjust without pain rather patient will feel so good.

[ Why does back bone cause malposition? ]
[ Why is spinal segment easy to displace? ]

a. Causes due to Embryology or Spinal Mechanics

At a stage of evolution, human being changed his/her walking style from quardruped general in every mammal, to biped walking style that supports the body against gravity. This style brought many profits at human's evolution by lifting up his head higher and using both hands freely. But the largest defect of biped style is that the human spinal system is still suited for quadruped style, and it hasn't perfectly evolved for biped style.

human spine

In which direction does the spinal segment displace?

b. Direct Causes

While human skeletal system has embryological and mechnical weak points, when an internal or external factor acts the specific spinal segment, it can not maintain correct alignment, resulting in malposition.

  1. external force ....fall down, car accident, etc.
  2. bad habits...........long time working or exercise in the same posture, hard sports, poor posture, etc.
  3. mental.................extreme strain, mental stress, shock, etc.
  4. chemical.............overuse of medicine, unbalanced nutrition, etc.
  5. others.................high or low temperature of the environment, birth, over-weight, etc.

[ What kind of symptoms or diseases does chiropractic help ? ]

Human skeleton has weak area in the neck and lumbar, and many people would understand that chiropractic helps only following symptoms and diseases caused by misalignment of these spinal segments.
Neck pain, low back pain, numbness or neuralgia in extremities, various types of joint disability.

Of course these symptoms are the favorite field for chiropractic, but chiropractic is not necessarily effective on them. Chiropractic aims to promote innate inntelligence possessed by living body, so it doesn't have "a method to cure" for each symptom or disease in general. Chiropractors are just seeking out spinal subluxation reducing the flow of innate intelligence, and are always thinking how he/she can adjust it skillfully.

Some patients ask me whether some definite disease can be helped by chiropractic or not. Chiropractor can only answer "If your innate intelligence will begin to act well, you will get a result." And he/she can only answer "Please come to adjust, and watch the progress."

Some readers may think "It's somewhat unreliable." However chiropractic is recognized all over the world, and supported by every nation. Especially such cases where no abnormality has been found by various examinations at hospital, it may be a functional disease. In these cases, chiropractic will help greatly.

Chiropractic's basic thought is not "thought in detail" of western medicine, but "thought as a whole" of oriental medicine.
The cure observing a patient as a whole is called Holistic Care, and also chiropractic is one way of Holistic Care.


4: Main adjustment systems (Techniques)

[ Meric Recoil Technique ]
found by Dr. D. D. Palmer

This technique uses quite rapid recoil of bilateral hands to adjust spinal segment under consideration of relationship between spinal segment and specific viscus. Cleveland college was teaching only this technique until quite recently.

[ Toggle Recoil Technique ]
found by Dr. B. J. Palmer

This is very famous technique which adjusts only upper cervical spine(C1 or C2) according to the so called "Hole In One Theory".

Hole In One Theory: An idea that major subluxation would be found on upper cervicals in many cases. Sherman College was teaching only this technique since its establishment until quite recently.

[ Diversified Technique ]

This technique was a main adjusting system untill D. D. Palmer and B. J. Palmer found Recoil Technique. This technique corrects rotatory displacement mainly. Because this technique was devised before the concept of major subluxation had been found, some adjusting method doesn't use contact with specific spinal segment. A general image for chiropractic care in Japan derives from this technique.

[ Thompson Terminal Point Technique ] found by Dr. Clay Thompson

Cley Thompson Dr. C. Thompson developed hydraulic drop table(Thompson Table). He discovered pelvic displacement patterns and a relevance between pelvic displacements and difference of leg length. He introduced an examination to decide whether the major subluxation exists at the cervical spine or not.

[ Gonstead Technique ] found by Dr. Clarence Gonstead

Clarence Gonstead Dr. C. Gonstead established X-ray analysing method to judge displacements of spinal segments and pelvic. He advocated that a vertebra can displace to posterior first of all. This idea is much different from diversified technique. This technique is based upon major subluxation and physiological function of the intervertebral disk, and uses an orthodox manipulative procedure. But there are not many experts in this technique because it is quite difficult to master this technique.

He has built the largest chiropractic clinic in U.S. on Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin, which has seminar rooms, an airport for cessna, and a motel.

[ Sacro Occipital Technique (S.O.T.) ]
found by Dr. Major Bertland DeJarnette (1899-1992)

DeJarnette Dr. M. B. DeJarnette learned osteopathy from Dr. A. T. Still and learned cranial technique from Dr. Sutherland, then he graduated from Nebraska Chiropractic College.

1925:He began developing, studying and educating S.O.T. at Omaha Nebraska. And he had made comprehensive survey of cranial technique, reflex technique for viscera and extremity technique. The flow of cerebrospinal fluid is regarded as important in this technique. This technique does't use quick thrusts but uses wedge shaped blocks to insert under the patient's pelvis for pelvic correction using patient's weight. Founder's career shows that S.O.T.has a lot of osteopathy manipulation.

[ S.T.O. & Harmonic Technique ]
found by Dr. Mervin Lloyd Rees (1920-1992)

M.L.Rees Dr. M. L. Rees discoverd Temporal Sphenoidal Line(TS Line = reflex points for viscera) during The World War 2.

1955 : began to practicing in Sedan Kansas

1956 : began S.O.T.

1974 : was installed as a director of S.O.R.S.I.(Sacro Occipital Research Society International).

1980 : opened his original technique i.e. Harmonic Technique, Soft Tissue Orthopedic Technique.

[ Applied Kinesiology ]
found by Dr. George Goodheart

Dr. G. Goodheart found a relationship between each Meridian and each muscle, nerve, neuro- vascular reflex point, neuro-lymph reflex point. This is very popular among people who have an acupuncture license in Japan, because it is easy for them to adapt having knowledges of Meridian.

[ Logan Basic Technique ]
found by Dr. Hugh Logan

This technique uses continuous pressure for a pelvic ligament with deep sensory reflex to adjust spinal segment.

[ Pierce-Stillwagon Technique ]
found by Dr. Walter Pierce & Dr. Glenn Stillwagon

This technique uses drop table as well as Thompson Terminal Point Technique. This is characterized by adjusting method and thought for fifith cervical & pelvic displacements. Toggle recoil Technique and Logan Basic Technique play a part of this technique.

etc, etc....... A lot of techniques are still remaining. But I have shown you the most important ones, so the rest are omitted.


5: Education in USA, CANADA, AUSTRALIA & UK

Chiropractic Colleges in the world

  1. Cleveland Chiropractic College; Kansas City, Missouri(MO)
  2. Cleveland Chiropractic College; Los Angeles, California(CA)
  3. Life Chiropractic College; Marietta,Georgia
  4. Life Chiropractic College-West; San Lorenzo, CA
  5. Logan College of Chiropractic; Chesterfield, MO
  6. Los Angeles College of Chiropractic; Los Angels, CA
  7. National College of Chiropractic; Chicago, Illinois(IL)
  8. New York Chiropractic College; Seneca Falls, New York
  9. Northwestern College of Chiropractic; Minneapolis, Minnesota
  10. Palmer College of Chiropractic; Davenport, Iowa
  11. Palmer College of Chiropractic West; San Jose, CA
  12. Parker College of Chiropractic; Dallas, Texas(TX)
  13. Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic; Spartanburg, South Carolina
  14. Texas Chiropractic College; Pasadena, TX
  15. University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic; Bridgeport, Connecticut
  16. Western States Chiropractic College; Portland, Oregon
  17. Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College; Toronto, Ontario
  18. Anglo-European College of Chiropractic; Dorset,UK
  19. University of Glamorgan: Chiropractic Unit; Wales,UK
  20. Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Chiropractic Program; Melbourne
  21. Macquarie University Chiropractic Program; Sydney
  22. Institut Franco- Europeen de Chiropratique; France

[Qualification of entrance for Chiropractic Colleges]

1.Pre-professional qualifications:
  minimum of two years college/university credits in 
  qualifying subjects

2.For foreign students; more than 550 points on TOEFL.


Chiropractic colleges are bound to fulfill the 4200 classroom hours standard which has been decided by the Council on Chiropractic Education(CCE). CCE has had offical status with the U.S.Department of Education since 1974, and is the sole accrediting agency for chiropractic education in the US. A sample curriculum for an accredited chiropractic college in North America appears below(cf#7).
[Biological Sciences]           Hrs
@Human Anatomy                     180
  Microscopic Anatomy               140
  Developmental Anatomy              28
  Neuroanatomy                       72
  Neuroscience                      120
  Biochemistry                      112
  Physilogy                          36
  Pathology                         174
  Diagnosis                          72
  Microbiology &
  Infectious Diseases               100
  Systems Physiology                 87
  Nutrition                          58
  Immunology                         13
  Toxicology                         13
  Clinical Nutrition                 26
  Community Health                   39

[Clinical Sciences]             Hrs
  Intro.Diagnosis                    87
  Neurodiagnosis                     42
  Differential Diagnosis             32
  Dignosis & Symptomatrogy          116
  Orthopedics & Rheumatology         92
  Intro Bone Pathology               48
  Clinical Psychology                46
  Arthritis & Trauma                 48
  Emergency Care                     52
  Child Care                         20
  Female care                        29
  Geriatrics                         20
  Normal Radigraphic Anatomy         16
  Radiation Biophisics
  & Protection                       44
  Normal Roentgen, Variants &
  Roentgenometrics                   39
  Radilogical Technology             39
  Abdomen, Chest, & Special
  Radigraphic Procedures             40

[Chiropractic sciences]         Hrs
  Chiropractic Principles           156
  Chiropractic Skills               390
  Basic Body Mechanics               96
  Spinal Mechanics                   42
  Clinical Biomechanics             100
  Auxiliary Chiropractic Therapy     91
  Integrated Chiropractic Practice   95
  Jurisprudence & 
  Practical Development              62

[Clinical Education]            Hrs
  Internship                        752
  Auxiliary Chiropractic Therapy
  Clerkship                          33
  Clinical Lab Clerkship             21
  Clinical X-ray Technology          71
  Clinical X-ray Interpretation      69
  Chiropractic Management            31
  Applied Research & Biometrics      32

This sample curriculum has more classroom hours in anatomy and neurology than a curriculum of the general medical college, while it has less hours in internal medicine, surgery & phermacy. The total hours of chiropractic sciences are 1032 hrs. which amount only for 25 % of all classroom hours(4200 hrs). You must understand that students study basic medical sciences in so many hours. Of course students who are going to do for human health and welfare, can not study basic medical sciences too much. But DCs(Doctor of Chiropractic) just after the graduation are not skilled in chiropractic technique. And many Japanese DCs would like to come back to their home country immedately after completion of their chiropractic course. Japanese people have tendancy to make a fetish of imported things, and this trend is persistent in a field of chiropractic also. You must know that DCs just after graduatation are not skilled in technique. And you must understand above situation when you receive chiropractic care or when you try to study chiropractic in Japan. A returned DC from abroad is not an expert immediately! In order to get proficient in chiropractic technique, students are going to attend diligently various chiropractic seminars held on weekend. But it is all foreign students could do to study college curriculum because of their finance or language ability, and a very few foreign students can attend weekend seminar.


6: Peculiar situation of Chiropractic in Japan - Diffusion & Education in Japan-

It was early 1910s that chiropractic was firstly introduced in Japan by Dr. Kawaguchi Saburo D.C. who had graduated from Palmer School(cf#4). Also other persons have brought back Osteopathy techniques in Japan same age. These manipulative therapies had been taught in some short and small courses, but have not been wide spread among the Japanese people till 1970s. At this time, the term called "Seitai" had been devised as Japanese term of chiropractic and osteopathy, and the authrities in the time instructed to use this term "Seitai" to these manipulative therapists.

Many manipulative therapies called like "**Seitai","**Kinseiho","**Ryoujutu" were started by some persons who had studied chiropractic or ostoepathy in that age. And these "founders" added their original techiniques for their own manipulative system. But, these founders asserted the uniqueness of their own system so strong that they didn't announce their treating sytem originated in Chiropractic or Osteopathy. Therefore, recent members of these parties don't know origin of their technique. And many strange phenomena - some members of these parties establish an another inferior imitator - are still now occuring.

The tendency that anyone could set up theirown party of Seitai for selfish reasons and will only announce the uniqueness of their technique, is one of many factors that have been blocked normal development and correct acknowledgment of manipulative therapy such as Chiropractic or Osteopathy in Japan. It is most regrettable that this tendency of setting up one's own Seitai Party arbitarily is remaining unbroken in Japan.

Japanese laws for the alternative medicine were made up as for shiatu-massage, acupuncture, moxibustion in 1910, and as for judo manipulation in 1919. Besides another alternative medicine called "Ryoujutu" which used 5 different treating means "manipulation, electricity, beams of light, heat, stimulation" - Chiropractic was included in "manipulation" - was left without definite law. But this was allowed under local government offices or police offices until World War 2.

After World War 2, The Occupation Administration Office prohibited all these alternative medicine. After that, the law was legislated for massage, acupuncture, moxibustion and judo manipulation in 1947. Consequently "Ryoujutu" was prohibited by this law. Shiatu manipulation was included in massage by partial amendment of this law afterward. In 1964, entacted law admitted the "Ryoujutu" only by the person who had been engaging in this thrapy before 1947. But the way to new business for Ryoujutu therapists was shut at that time.

However, regarding the lawsuit occurred at Fukushima Pref. in 1953, which concerned to Ryoujutu treatment called "HS style nonheat high frequency treatment", the Japanese Supreme Court decided "Ryoujutu treatment without any probability of harm need not be controled strictly" in 1960. This judicial precedent has become the ground of legalization of chiropractic after that in Japan. And then Ryoujutu therapists have come to rapidly increase in Japan. In addition, some kind of condition without legal control was generalised regarding chiropractic. In consequence, many immature Ryoujutu therapists started theirown businesses, causing many problems recently.

The Japanese Diet regarded this situation as important and made up following provision in the law revision in 1972. "The Minister of Welfare must take necessary measures in consideration of the result of survey by The Central Council regarding contents of business and the license of the therapist except for shiatu-massage, acupuncture, moxibustion and judo manipulation till 1974." However, this provision has been left even now by the strong opposition of existing medical and alternative medicine license groups.

The Ministry of Welfare was anxious about the rapid increase of immature chiropractors, so he sent a notice "About the management of alternative medicine" to sanitation section of each prefecture in June 1991, and also tried to organize the chiropractic union by main chiropractic associations and tried to cause self-regulation. As a result, 12 chiropractic associations formed Japan Chiropractic Communicative Conference in November 1992, and are discussing a guide line of a uniform education standard and self-control in this conference. (9 associations of chiropractic mentiond below join in this Conference as of '96/12, Then National Ryoujutu Association and this Coference have organised a Union between them in 1996.06.)

But some wicked chiropractic parties are still inviting new students advertising to be able to master techniques in a short term, and charge a high tuition fee and a high seminar fee on the authority of the judicial precedent of the Supreme Court in 1960. There is not an effective method or law which prevents the mass production of immature chiropractors in Japan.

[ Japanese Chiropractic Associations joining the Japan Chiropractic Communicative Conference ]

  • Natural Chiropractic Scicence Association
  • National Chiropractors Association
  • Communicative Conference of Doctors of Chiropractic
  • Oriental Chiropractic Association
  • Japan Chiropractic Academy
  • Japan Chiropractic Association
  • Japan Chiropractic Union
  • Japan Chiropractic Research Association
  • Pacific Asia Association of Chiropractic

These associations adopt theirown standerd of admission. But some wicked chiropractic parties were coming to invite new students advertising extensively to be able to master chiropractic techniques in a short term without any license, from about 10 years ago. Accordingly applicants who have an easygoing way of thinking to chiropractic business have been increasing, and some of these associations have been taking a measure in which they educate these applicants fully from basic medical sciences to applied chiropractic techniques than leave them to wicked parties.

Until around 1970, as for a treatment system of chiropractic that was introduced in Japan, there was only one diversified technique. The most primitive and dangerous technique among diversified techniques was following manipulation. Doctor grasps a patient's chin and the back of the head, then he/she twists whole neck, and also holds patient's shoulder and pelvis with hands with patient lying down on one side, and twists the whole lumbar spine.

Since 1970's many Japanese doctors who graduated from chiropractic college in U.S. have returned home one after another and began to introduce various chiropractic systems other than diversified technique.

However, some Japanese Doctors of Chiropractic aim at only making money by high tuition fee, high seminar fee, and by royalties on his poor books about chiropractic techniques. Japanese people have tendancy to make a fetish of imported things, and this trend is persistent in a field of chiropractic also. You must know that a Doctor of Chiropractic just graduated from U.S. chiropractic college is not skilled in technique. And you must understand above situation when you receive chiropractic care or when you try to study chiropractic in Japan. "A returned doctor of Chiropractic from abroad is not an expert immediately."

At present, over 50 chiropractors who have a degree of Doctor of Chiropractic in U.S. have returned in Japan. Needless to say there are many doctors with wonderful personality and skilled technique among them, but I know some returned doctors who cannot satisfactorily adjust yet, having passed more than 10 years after graduation.

There are 4-5 chiropractor training schools in Japan which are managed by some chiropractic associations. For example, the course of study in the Universal Chiropractic College managed by Pacific Asia Association of Chiropractic extended over 2 years since 5 years ago, and this school is entering upon the 15th period in 1996.

[ Curriculums of Universal Chiropractic College ]

Students who have some license of alternative medicine must study following subjects for 2 years(1000 hours).
  • Basic medical sciences:
    • General Anatomy
    • Spinal Anatomy
    • Neural Anatomy
    • General Physiology
    • Neural Physiology
    • Joints Physiology
    • Neurology
    • Orthopedic Tests
    • Medical Terminology
  • Chiropractic sciences:
    • Chiropractic Philosophy
    • History of Chiropractic
    • Radiological Analysis
    • Radiological Pathology
    • Chiropractic Diagnosis
    • Chiropractic Instrumentation
    • Patient Education Method
    • Patient Explanation Method
    • Chiropractic Business Administration
    • Student Clinic
  • Chiropractic Techniques:
    • Toggle Recoil Technique
    • Thompson Terminal Point Technique
    • Diversified Technique
    • Gonstead Technique
    • Sacro Occipital Technique
    • Logan Basic Technique
    • Pierce-Stillwagon Technique
    • Extremity Technique

Students who have no license are assigned next subjects in addition above subjects for same 2 years (1300 hours).

  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Outline of Examination
  • Clinical Itemized Discussion
  • Outline of Pathology
  • Hygieiology
  • Public Health

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"Chiropractic in Japan" Maeda Shigeru, Copyright 1996-; All rights reserved.