The Kamakura Shogunate ended its one-and-a-half century rule in 1333 when the resurgent loyalist troops led by Yoshisada Nitta (1302-1338) destroyed Kamakura after a fierce battle. (See History for details.) Knowing defeat was imminent, 870-odd samurai of the Hojo clan headed by Takatoki Hojo (1303-1333), the 14th Hojo Regent, committed mass suicide at a great Zen temple called Toshoji , which was built in 1237 for the Hojo family and existed 200 meters southeast of today's Hokaiji, near Redemptoristine Convent. At the same time, they burned out the temple so that no samurai were identifiable to the enemy. Toshoji is said to have been like a fortress as proved by the excavations in 1975 and 1976. Code of samurai always calls for suicide rather than surrender. It was honored even during World War II.
Today, the neighborhood is packed with private houses and there is nothing to remind us of the tragic days of the past. The only spot reminiscent of the disaster is the Yagura cave dug at the foot of a hill near the Toshoji ruins. It is called Takatoki Harakiri (seppuku) Yagura, where remains of those who committed harakiri were buried and a gorinto (five-tier tomb) cenotaph is installed. If you visit here alone and there is no one else, perhaps you will get scared. (Meanwhile, The American Heritage Dictionary, Third Edition, reads in its 'seppuku' that 'seppu, to cut + ku, abdomen'. This is wrong. Seppuku is a combination of setsu (cut) and fuku (abdomen) resulting in 'seppuku' for an easier pronunciation.)
Takatoki Hojo took the post of the 14th Hojo Regent in 1316 at age 13, too young to be a real ruler. In addition, the power of the Shogun and Regent was no longer as strong as it had been before. Initiated by Emperor Godaigo, Nitta troops with over 100,000 warriors attacked Kamakura in 1333 to topple the Shogunate and Hojo regime. Hojo clan's samurai fought back bravely, but the goddess of victory did not side with them. Takatoki was forced to take his own life at age 31. To mourn for the dead, Takatoki in particular, Emperor Godaigo instructed Takauji Ashikaga, the First Shogun of the Muromachi Period (1336-1573), to erect the Temple appointing Priest Enkan (1281-1356), a famous Tendai sect priest in Kyoto, to be the founder. However, Priest Enkan himself was one of the priests who had invocated for the fall of the Hojo regime at the request of the Emperor.
The Temple stands right on the site where chieftains of the Hojos resided generation after generation. As if to show the past glory, the Hojo's emblem, triangles made up with black and gold denoting "three scales", appears on the Temple gate and roof's tiles.
The second chief priest Shokei-Yuiken (1289-?) was a disciple of Priest Enkan and contributed to expanding the Temple into a full-scale monastery.
Hokaiji is one of the two Tendai sect temples in Kamakura. The other is Sugimoto-dera.
Hondo, or Main Hall
The main object of worship is a sedentary statue of Jizo Bosatsu, a guardian deity of children. The 91-centimeter tall wooden statue, an ICA, was fashioned in 1365 by Sanjo-Hoin-Ken-en (date of birth and death unknown), a famous Kyoto sculptor in the 14th century, with a staff in its right hand and a string of beads in its left, a typical Jizo Bosatsu statue. Since Jizo is also believed to save the souls of those who are undergoing the hellish agony in the netherworld, the statue is most suitable here in that it can console the souls of Takatoki and many other war-dead. The statue is the first of the Twenty-Four Jizo Pilgrimage in Kamakura.
As Ken-en was a sculptor in Kyoto, the statue has some hints of Kyoto style, not Chinese ones observed in many other statues in Kamakura. Why Kyoto sculptors? Because, the Temple was constructed under the instruction of Emperor Godaigo in Kyoto.
A Jizo Bosatsu statue at NNM.
Flanking the Jizo Bosatsu statue are life-size statues of Bonten, or Brahma-Deva in Skt., and Taishakuten, or Sakra Devanam Indra in Skt., both are excellent works made during the 14th century probably by Ken-en himself or one of Sanjo-school sculptors, and are designated as ICAs by Kanagawa Prefecture. In Kamakura, their works can be seen only in the Temple.
A print of Bonten at MFA and paintings of Taishakuten at NNM.
In front of the Jizo Bosatsu statue are Ten Devas. On the right-hand recess are the statue of the Lord of Hades, or Yama and that of Takatoki Hojo. On the left of the Jizo Bosatsu flank the statues of Fudo Myo-o (the Immovable), or Acala-vidyaraja, and that of Juntei Kan'non, or Cundi in Skt., which is listed on the second of the Kamakura Thirty-Three Kan'non Pilgrimage. Visitors are allowed to go inside the hall and worship those statues real close.
A Juntei Kan'non on view at e-Museum.
Another ICA in this hall is a 97.1-centimeter tall sedentary statue of Priest Shokei, the second chief priest. It was made when he was 84 years old by a sculptor named 'Chokei'. Despite its excellent works, little is known of him except that he was an active sculptor in the latter half of the 14th century. Tendai sect Buddhists seem to have had customs to make statues of prominent priests like those of Zen priests. Priest Shokei was honored with a posthumous title of 'Fusen the National Teacher' and left a number of sutra transcripts, which are precious documents even today for those who study the Tendai doctrines in the greater Tokyo area. In fact, the Temple once used to be among the largest Tendai school in eastern Japan.
At 1:30 p.m. on 24th every month, a ceremony for the Jizo Bosatsu is held with the holy fire. The hall is relatively new, rebuilt in 1932.
At the southeast corner of the Temple grounds or on the right of the main hall stands a small structure, in which the statue of Kangiten (Nandikesvara in Skt.), an ICA, is enshrined. The statue with 152-centimeter height, made during the first half of the 14th century, is unique in that it has two elephant faces on two human bodies hugging each other. Originally, Kangiten was a god of Hinduism and was later employed by Buddhism. In Japanese folklore, Kangiten is believed to invite a conjugal affection and bless couples with children. Unfortunately, the statue is not on public display and the feretory door is always closed. A hanging scroll of Kangiten at MFA.
You will find this hall to your right after entering the gate. Taishi stands for Shotoku Taishi, or Prince Shotoku (574-622), who adopted Buddhism as the official religion of the Imperial Court in the late sixth century, and later proclaimed it as the state religion. Prince Shotoku is regarded as the founding father of Japanese Buddhism and Taishido is dedicated to his memory. The legend relating to the birth of Prince Shotoku is similar to that of Jesus Christ. Her mother gave birth to him after having a dream in which a priest appeared asking her to allow him to come into the world to save people. She got pregnant immediately and went into labor after bumping into the door of a stable. Sounds like a Japanese version of the Annunciation. The priest appeared in her dream may have been the Angel Gabriel.
On the open French doors, a pair of the Imperial Family's emblem of open chrysanthemum with 16 rays are showing. This emblem is still used as the symbol of Japan and appears on the cover of the Japanese passports as well as at the gate of Japanese embassies worldwide. To be precise, however, chrysanthemum is the symbol of the Imperial Family and it dates back to the era of Emperor Gotoba (1180-1239), who loved the flower so much that it became the Family's flower. The national flower of Japan, meanwhile, is cherry blossom.
Inside the hall, a typical statue of Prince Shotoku, whose portrait once appeared on the 10,000-yen banknote, is enshrined, but all we can view is the lower part of the statue. No other temples have Taishido in Kamakura.
On January 22 every year, some 100 carpenters, plasterers and blacksmiths join the memorial service for the Prince, who greatly contributed to the development of the construction industry through temple-building. As is well known, he erected seven temples including the famous Horyuji in Nara and Shiten'noji in Osaka.
In between the Kangitendo Hall and the Taishido Hall is a shrine with a torii gate. This small shrine is sacred to Takatoki Hojo. It may sound odd for a temple to have a shrine in its grounds. According to legend, the ghost of Hojo martyrs haunted the area after the tragedy of 1333. In order to pacify the spirits of those ghosts, this shrine was erected. Enshrined here is a statue of Takatoki Hojo himself. Tokuso means patrimonial head of the Hojos covering nine generations in direct lineage.
Memorial Service for Takatoki
On May 22, the day of the holocaust, mass requiem takes place every year, and even today, the descendants of the Hojos get together here to join it.
At 1:00 p.m., the sedentary, small statue consecrated in the shrine is cordially brought out and carried to the main hall of the Temple by attendants wearing white clothes (apparently shintoists) followed by Buddhist priests putting on colorful robes. The statue is placed on the main altar. The leading priest takes a seat in the center of the hall surrounded by a dozen priests, each sit on a designated space starting from Ne and ending I in twelve Chinese Zodiac order (See Eto of Kamakura Terminology.). All are Tendai Sect priests in Kanagawa Prefecture. In front of each priest is a wooden box each containing 50 volumes of Dai-hannya-kyo, or Mahaprajnaparamita-sutra, which was translated into Chinese by the great Chinese priest Xuan-zang (602-664). The sutra is extremely long, made of 600 volumes. The ceremony begins with the leading priest chanting sutras. Twenty minutes or so later, surrounding priests begin to take out the sutra books in the box one by one. Each volume, roughly 10 by 30 and 3 centimeters thick, is made of a long sheet of paper folded in zigzag, on which the sutras in Chinese characters are printed. All priests take out one book after another simultaneously. They shout sutra showing the book like playing an accordion. It may sound like saying abracadabra to the laity. Reading fifty volumes by 12 priests means all of the 600 volumes Dai-hannya-kyo are read to mourn for the departed souls. Chanting sutras by the leading priest and the dozen priests takes about one hour. The ceremony is followed by Japanese classic music and dancing, and exactly at 3:00 p.m., the service is over. The Takatoki's statue returns to the shrine.
One part of Dai-hannya-kyo at NNM.
Hundreds of Japanese bush clovers are in full bloom in September. The Temple changes to a favorable spot for amateur photographers. The flowers of bush clover are usually pink while in the Temple, they are mostly white as if to honor the symbol color of the Minamoto Clan.
Updated September 2013