"Beyond modern disciplined society toward joy of life"
A meaning of Grundtvigian movement in Japan as an advanced countory
folk as Mutitude
joy of living conversation
Mitsuru Shimizu
Grundtvig Society of Japan for Folke hojskole movements

1. "folk"as "Multitude"
"Empire" written by Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt became a best seller. It is well know by predicting the control of the world by United States, the democratic empire, . The two authors present the idea and the structure of "the empire" vs. "Multitude" in the book. The idea of "Multitude" can be understood in various ways, but in the basics, it can be agred that it includes the concept of people/folk which will not be swept away by the nation or state. Negri and Hardt have mentioned "Multitude" as the power going against the nation and globalization in today's society . Important is that they don't look at "social class" or "folk" as the concept which is unified and cohesive network, but they recognized "social class" or "folk" as "Multitude" which is pluralistic and flexible, and which may seem to be very random but can make up a strong network very quickly. This concept abandons the idea that in order to go against the great power of globalization we need to have the same kind of bureaucracy including law and order, and social organization, which contains the danger of falling into the bureaucratic pitfall. Instead, they recognizes the strength of the the people/folk as the protean and anarchistic, deconstructive tendencies. That is "Multitude". It can be said the idea or "folk" which Grundtvig and hojskole movement have recognized the importance of pluralistic and differences, which coincide with the idea of "Multitude".

2. the meaning of Danish hojskole movement in the modern society

In the world's history, there are many events named "revolution" or "people's liberation ", but most of them have done the same, urbanization and modernization of the country side. "Liberation of people" meant demolish the pluralistic and the differences of the people leading to homogeneity and equalization and integrate the people into modern capitalism society which is centralized by urban city and market. This very same can be said to what is happening in Eastern Europe since 1989. The unitary idea of the capitalism have been covered the whole world. But, the Danish hojskole movement took the third path. It was few of the revolution which was not influenced by Marxism. Those people we not "citizen" nor "laborer", they were "folkelig". They went against the idea of international modern science with the native romaticism, went against the modern homogeneity of body (military, factory labor, order in school, physical education, etc.) with the Ling exercise, and went against centralized and bureaucratic wave of modernization with the decentralization and the pluralistic and liberalism of Grundtvig. The very example is the Danish school system which can be represented with Grundtvigian. If our school system in Japan is one of the examples of the modern system of advanced nations, Danish public education is the fruit of the third path. Danish "folk" is very much different from "laborer" and "urban citizen". It is much more closer to the people of developing countries and those who are suppressed by the urban society (minorities, women, children, disabled, etc.) recognizing the importance of ambiguity, diversity, pluralistic, differences, and minority. This can be seen in the way how the Danish ministry of education interchangeably uses "Grundtvigian freedom"and the right of minority .
It is interesting to see that in Danish hojskole movement, the exercise which, by nature, has soldiery and institutional conformity meaning have adopted the anti structural role and became the weapon of the people against the homogeneity. To be specific, as it is seen in Snoghoj hojskole , historically, Ling exercise which has soldiery elements became the basis to go against fascist and militarism. Now, this has became as exercise to relieve those people struggling with excessive stress under the rules and order or systemized society today. It is re-recognized that the traditional Danish holiday games and events which coincide closely with nature make a great contribution to the relaxation of the modern people in such a way.
If the surface of the modernazation is capitalism and democracy, the inner face and the deep mind means the order itself, obedient body, dependency on the order, hard working spirit, rational distribution of space and time, control of the unconsciousness as Michel Foucault pointed out. The management of body which can be seen in exercise and medical science means the management of the people by the power or authority. This can be expressed as the tendency of modernization, but in Denmark, it is contestation against modernization. This comes from the nature of Grundtvig and hojskole movement and many of its aspects can be adopted to those people living in advances nations where their body and appetition are strictly managed.

3. Grundtvig Society of Japan

In Japan, Danish hojskole movement became popular in 1930's and in 1960's. Bu the end of 19th century, Danish hojskole movement and Grundtvigian movement was introduced by Christians in Japan as farmers movement and became active in 1930's, it was incorporated as one of the models of modernazation of farmers. But during this time, hojskole movement was promoted by not only Christians but also by the sham-nationalist, and it was suspected as fascistic movement and was to decline. In 1960's, one agricultural College (Rakuno Gakuenn)was founded by the Christians inspired by the Danish hojskole movement. It began a kind of farmers movement named San Ai juku movement and it served a major role to promote the independence of farmers in Hokkaido. During this period of rapid economical growth in Japan, farmers were demised but Hokkaido was one of our major agricultural region and is was necessary to promote agriculture, so farmers movement and hojskole movementwas still active there. Though, as the industrialization of agriculture came along, this idea and activity have declined now.
Today, there are two private Hojskole run by individuals. One is Setana hojskole in Hokkaido and the other is Oguni hojskole in Yamagata-pref. Setana hojskole was founded by Masato Kawamura in 1992, who is the graduate of Rakuno Gakuen college and is influenced by the Danish hojskole movement and Grundtvig through San Ai juku movement. There are 10 to 15 young people engaged in dairy farming and other various activity living together for a year. Oguni hojskole in Yamagata-pref. was founded by Yoshikazu Take, who was a teacher as Japanese alternative school, in year 2000. There are 2 to 4 young people studying together. Kawamura have studied in Danish agricultural school in his youth and have stayed in Norwegian hojskole in early 1990's. Take has taught music in Norwegian hojskole for a year in 1999. There are commonality in those young people in these two hojskole . They are drop outs of the Japanese school system which is based on achievement and excessive competition. Unitary Japanese school system does not have places for those who do not wish to pursuit the path leading to college and on to good career. Therefore, these two hojskoles are serving as a take over school for those young people. In Japan today, these small schools serving as alternative for the school system are increasing and playing an important role to cover the distortion of the achievement competition based society. The two hojskoles have been recognized as this type of alternative schools by the society. They are not functioning as the school for adult education as it is in Denmark. It may be easier to understand that they are somewhat similar to efterskole in Denmark.
Grundtvig Society of Japan for Folkehojskole movements was founded by Mitsuru Shimizu in 1994 as the networking organization of individuals who have interest in hojskole movement and the educational idea of Grundtvig. It is thought as "hojskole with out a building". We hold over nights seminar few times a year which forms very similar atmosphere as hojskole . There are only about 170 members, though many of them are the leaders and members of various activities within their region and thought our activity, various and valuable information could be exchanged. In many cases, these information can be advantage to their activities back their own area and therefore the society may be very small but has great social influence. Through the society, the emperor and empress have met with teachers of hojskole , and Daisaku Ikeda, the president of one of the major religious group "souka gakkai" was introduced to the idea of Hojskoleand Grundtvig.

4. The goal of Grundtvig Society of Japan

The society's goal is 1) to create pluralistic and flexible style of social activities, 2) to recreate the joy and happiness or meeting with people and to interactive with people, 3) and that can become the commitment as to reform ourselves and the society, 4) Interaction through bodys exists as the method. This is the raising of issue from Japan presenting that the living word , interaction, and enlightment of Grundtvigian be realized in a highly industrial society or in urban society of advanced nation such as Japan.

1) Citizens' movements and protests play a significant role in Japan and NPO and NGO are greatly contributing to the society in various ways. Many of the international NGO, such as Greenpeace and Amnesty International, have their branch office in Japan and handling global issues. In this way, its can be said that Japanese society have ripened. But as the organization become bigger in its structure, bureaucratic and system issues rise and it makes it difficult to tackle the issue itself with flexibility. As the lobbying activity with the politician and corporation became the major issue, it loses the strength of pluralistic and flexible social activity of the people. Authority and connection, financial power and organizational power gain the ultimate power and there will be flaw too. Especially, Japanese are hardworking and loyal to the organization, this trait can lead to alienation similar to that of working for corporation.
The Grundtvig Society is active as free and voluntary network and not as solid organization. To be accurate, network also inquires mechanical and organizational control and management. Therefore, it is better to say that our society is more similar to what Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guartard say "rhizome", or what Negri and Hardt state as "multitude". Individual activities can create various meanings within the grater activity as a whole and create new content and motivation.
As transportation method and information technology devices develop, and as the airfare became popular, people are now able to communicate face to face with each other. You do not have to be a administration officer nor businessman of multinational company to communicate with the people around the world, freely with respect using living words and interaction. Grundtvig society of Japan is a small group, but we have communicating with Danish, German, Korean, American, and Thai's activity groups and influencing each other in good ways. Also, within our members, there is a group who pursuit fair trade and organic coffee farming in South America, and also supporting environmental activity there. Although, we are a small group, we have exercised our multitude network and raised our anti- war protest against US's war against Iraq. Creative ingenuity of each individual get together and became the grate flow of creation. Not like existent organization, it has nothing to do with stabilization, systemization, nor bureaucracy. Instead, we bring free and happiness to people, not restrain and stress. Our activity itself brings joy and happiness. That is "multitude" network or what is called "rhizome".

2) "The activity itself becomes happiness". This is what Aristatole called the concept of happiness. Therefore, the main concern of our society is happiness and joy. What joy and happiness is for people does not change and it is based on love and friendship of family, friends, and community. Today, family and community have collapsed and there are needs to intentionally make that kind of communication. In United States, counseling and psychiatric workshops became popular. This is one of the phenomenons. When staying at Danish Hojskole , you will start to feel the atmosphere of "living words and interaction". This enables you to reassure the happiness of being together with others and the concept of happiness which Aristotle described. Our activity pursuits this concept of Aristotle with some Japanese spice to it. The content of our seminar and activities extravert, going outward to the society, not interned and corruptive like psychiatric workshops and cult activities.

3) At our seminars, we value the gathering of people and how we can communicate with each other in "living words." We hope that from this gathering, there will be something new coming out and influence each other leading to happiness and self revolution. This can be said as the concept of "Philia"which Aristotle describes. He says, 1. friends shall gain joy through the friendship, 2. shall enlighten each other, 3. shave commitment for the good. Friendship and love is not something private like it is thought to be now days. It is something shared publicly and support people's community in nature. If people are connected and gathered based on profit and the power of organization, it will lead to competition and contention of profit and power focusing on who gains more and how to negotiate for your own profit. Companies, markets, and administration exist there but there is no city nor open square for people nor a place for the weak and those who do not belong to organization. Aristotle says city(police) is where friendship and solidarity exist and when our friendship commits to the common good, that supports the people's society. When we not only think about our own family, company, and the organization where we belong, that is when true friendship and love grows. This means that public solidarity does not come from romance nor love of family, commitment to company nor patriotism. Because they think only a certain limited profit but don't consider common value. Our seminar hope our gathering leads to our commitment towards our common good. Not just learning but we hope that it will lead to higher motivation to social practice.

4) As I have said earlier, Danish exercise have rare history but its idea of interaction through body can be valued more important today. In society today, either in company or school, we are separated and our mental and physics are managed by rules and order. Suppression coming from this management of mental and physics leads to mental problems. It is possible to free ourselves from this suppression, not depending on psychotherapy. We hope to incorporate traditional Japanese body arts, such as No performance, Karate, Martial arts, and traditional dances, in order to fulfill the body of people and interaction of people.