歴史

(6世紀後半の埴輪)
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  • 6-8世紀:古墳と国分寺

    古墳の形 琵琶塚、摩利支天塚古墳
    (Actual photo=23kB JPG)


    小山市と国分寺町の境界にこの二つの古墳は隣接してある。琵琶塚古墳は 栃木県最大で 5-6 世紀に造られたものと思われる。
    左図に概略の形状をしめすが寸法は;
    国分尼寺跡 国分尼寺跡

    聖武天皇の国分寺・国分尼寺設立の詔(741)により各国に国分寺、国分尼寺の 建設が行われたが、下野国分寺・尼寺は小山市に隣接する国分寺町に建設された。 国分尼寺跡は上記の琵琶塚古墳から約1kmの所にある。 国分尼寺跡は建物の配置と柱の位置がわかるように整備されている。 国分尼寺跡は公園となっておりその中にこの地域の歴史を展示する県立博物館がある。 この公園には八重桜が多く植えられており、4月から5月にかけて町民による露店が 多く出され花見客でにぎわう。

  • 12-16世紀:鎌倉・室町時代
    鷲城跡 思川の砦

    左の写真は小山氏の拠点であった鷲城跡をしめす。上部右に見える のは思川。思川側は急な断崖となっており、天然の要害となっている。この近辺には 「外城」という地名もあり、鷲城の出城があった。



  • 17-19世紀:江戸時代
    東照宮 日光街道

    江戸時代には小山は日光街道の宿場町として、また思川-利根川を使う 海運の港として栄えた。
    最初は本多正純がこの地を領し、その後の領主は一定しなかった。

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    History

    (Clay image of 6th century)
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  • 6-8th Century

    Advanced area Advanced Area

    Tochigi prefecture was called "Shimo-tsu-Ke" which mean Lower "Ke" country. Upper "Ke" (Kami-tsu-Ke) is Gunma Prefecture, located west of Tochigi.
    Both "Ke" countries are included in the early civilized area besides Kyushu (Southern part of Japan), Izumo(Shimane) and Kansai (Nara & Osaka) which were the earliest and most civilized area in ancient Japan.


    Shape of Tumulus Biwa-zuka & Marishiten-zuka tumulus
    (Actual photo=23kB JPG)


    These tumulus are estimated to be built in 5-6 th century. Though the buried persons are unknown, they must be lords who governed this area.
    The dimensions of the tumulus are;

    Ruins of Nunnery Ruins of Nunnery

    The Emperor Shomu (701-756) decided in 741 to build National Temples for priests and nuns in each country. The purpose of this project was thought to stabilize and centralize the nation by Buddhism.
    The central national temple was Todai-Ji in Nara completed in 752.
    Two temples were built in neighbor of Oyama as the "Shimo-tsu-Ke" (Tochigi) National Temples.
    One temple was built for priests, the ruins of which are under excavation. The other temple was for nuns, the ruins of which are arranged to display the traces of building columns. The history of this area can be seen in a prefectural museum located in between the two places.
    The ruins of nunnery and the museum are included in a historical park with many cherry blossoms. A spring festival for enjoying cherry blossoms is held in the park where foods, beverages and wines are sold at many open air stalls.

  • 12-16th century
    Fort in 13th Century Fort on OMOI River

    Left photograph shows the place where "Fort Washi" was built. Top right water is OMOI River. The bank of this place is so steep and deep that fortification was only necessary for the other side. This fort was built by one of Lord Oyama.



  • 17-19th century
    Nikko Shrine Road to Nikko

    The formal grave of Iyeyasu Tokugawa, the founder of the Tokugawa Shogun government , is in Nikko. Nikko Road from Edo (Tokyo) to Nikko was very important in Tokugawa Era (1600-1868).
    Oyama was one of the stages (lodging zone) on the Nikko Road.

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