P.0806

               CHAPTER 24 

 Intoxication 

   1. We shall now expound the 
chapter entitled  'The Therapeutics 
of Alcoholism'. 


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   2. Thus declared the worshipful 
Aatreya. 

 In praise of Wine 

   3-10. Wine, that was greatly wor-
shipped of old by the gods and their 
king, that which was invited by the 
ritualist and established in the sacri-
fice called SautraamaNi, she that uphol-
ds the sacrifices, that by which 
devitalised Indra was uplifted from 
the impenetrable gloom of faintness 
into which he had fallen by 
excessive addiction to Soma, that 
which is worthy of being seen, touch-
ed and mixed by holy men who offer 
sacrifices in the manner prescribed 
by the Vedas, that which is derived 
from a variety of sources and yet 
has the one common quality of into-
xication, that which endows the gods 
with choicest prosperity in the form 
of ambrosia, the manes in the shape 
of 'Swadha' and the twice-born in 
the shape of 'Soma', that which is 
the splendour, might and the wisdom 
of the AZwin twins, that which 
is the power of Indra, that which 
is the 'Soma' prepared in the 
'SautraamaNi' sacrifice, that which is 
the destroyer of sorrow, unhappiness, 
fear and distress, which is powerful, 
and which itself turns into and causes 
love, joy, speech and nourishment, and 
beatitude, that which has been praised 
as the joyful wine by the gods, Gand-
harvas, YakSas, RaakSasas and mortals, 


should be taken in the enjoined 
manner. 

   11-20. Having attended to the 
internal and external needs of the 
body and having bathed and painted 
himself with fragrant sandal, a person 
must wear clean clothing along with 
ornaments and fragrance suitable 
to the season. Then decking himself 
with garlands of variegated flowers 
and with jewels and ornaments, he 
should worship the gods and the 
BraahmaNas and toucn the most auspi-
cious articles. Seating himself comfor-
tably in a sitting or lounging position 
on a well made bed with pillows, in 
a spot scattered with flowers that 
are best suited to each season 
and fumigated with fragrant smoke, 
he should drink wine, always in 
vessels of gold or silver or vessels 
set with precious stones or other vessels 
clean and well shaped. He should 
drink while being shampood by clean, 
loving, beautiful, young and well 
trained women decked in fine clothes, 
jewels and flowers suitable to the 
season. He should eat, while drink-
ing, green fruits and salted fragrant 
flesh and other sauces agreeable to the 
wine and proper to the season, and 
the fried flesh of many kinds of 
creatures of the land, water and the 
air and many kinds of puddings made 
by expert cooks. He should drink, 
having prayed to the gods and 


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having first received their grace and 
having poured the libations of wine 
on the earth, mixed with water for 
the desiring spirits. 

   21. The person of the Vaata habi-
tus should take inunction, oil-massage 
and bath, and put on good raiment, 
treat himself to fragrant smoke and 
paint himself with sandal paste 
and should take the food prepared 
with unctuous and hot articles; after 
that, he should drink wine. 

   22. If the person with the Pitta-
habitus, after treating himself to 
various cooling things such as bath 
etc., and eating food consisting of 
sweet, unctuous and cooling articles, 
takes wine, it will not impair his 
health. 

   23. The person of the Kapha-
habitus, living on food prepared of 
barley and wheat, should treat himself 
to hot things and eat the flesh of 
JaaGgala animals prepared with black 
pepper and then take wine. 

   24. This is the procedure of 
drinking in the case of rich people 
and those who are, yet on the path to 
prosperity, should treat themselves to 
things that are available according to 
their circumstances and should drink 
wine in wholesome doses. 

   25. For persons of Vaata-habitus 
generally, the wine prepared of gur 


and flour is wholesome: while the 
persons with Kapha-cum-Pitta habitus 
should take grape-wine or honey-wine 

 Merits Of Right Mode of drinking 

   26. Wine is prepared from various 
substances and possesses various quali-
ties. It has various actions on the 
body. It is intoxicating in nature. 
Hence it should be viewed from 
the point of both its good as well 
as its evil effects. 

   27. If a person takes it in right 
manner, in right dose, in right time 
and along with wholesome food, in 
keeping with his vitality and with a 
cheerful mind, to him wine is like 
ambrosia. 

   28. While to a person who drinks 
whatever kind comes in hand to him, 
and whenever he gets an opportunity 
and whose body is dry due to 
constant exertion, that very wine 
acts as a poison. 

 The action of Alcohol 

   29. Alcohol reaching the brain, 
disturbs all the ten qualities of the 
vital essence by its ten-fold nature 
of action and thus leads to the de-
rangement of the mind (protoplasmic 
poison). 

   30. They are lightness, heat, 
acuteness, subtleness, acidity diffusive-
ness, quickness, dryness, expansiveness  


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and limpidness. These are descri-
bed to be the ten qualities of alcohol.

   31. While heaviness, coldness, soft-
ness, smoothness, denseness, sweetness, 
fixity, clearness, viscidity and unc-
tuousness are laid down as the ten 
qualities of vital essence. 

   32-34. Heaviness is destroyed by 
lightness, coldness by heat, sweetness 
by acidity, softness by acuteness 
clearness by quickness, unctuousness 
by dryness, fixity by diffusiveness, 
smoothness by expansiveness, viscidity 
by limpidness and density by subtle-
ness. Thus alcohol by its characteristic 
actions, destroys the ten qualities of 
the vital essence. It acts as a proto-
plasmic poison. As a result, alcohol 
agitates the mind, and its foundation, 
namely the heart, and quickly 
produces intoxication. 

   35. The heart is considered to be 
the seat of the circulatory channels 
of the body nutrient fluid, the Vaata 
and other humors and of the mind, 
intellect and the senses, as also of the 
vital essence. 

   36. By excessive use of alcohol 
and the resulting impairment of the 
vital essence, the brain becomes dis-
ordered along with the body-elements 
situated there. 

   37. In the first stage of intoxica-
tion, the vital essence is not affected 


but the mind becomes stimulated. In the 
second stage, the vital essence is 
slightly affected and in the third stage, 
it is completely affected. 

   38. The wine prepared from 
flour does not produce much impair-
ment of the vital essence, because the 
qualities of expansiveness, dryness and 
clearness are not in it in a pronoun-
ced degree. 

   39-40. When the brain is affected 
by the action of alcohol, there will 
result exhilaration, ardent desire, 
exultation, sense of happiness and 
various kinds of changes according 
to the psychic make-up of the person 
and according to its Raajasic or Taamasic 
qualities. Owing to excessive use of 
alcohol, stupor terminating in narcosis 
is produced. This is the delusion 
caused by wine and is known as 
alcoholic intoxication. 

 The Three stages of Intoxication 

   41. Three stages of intoxication are 
observed in a person who drinks wine 
the first, the middle or the second 
and the last or the third. We shall 
describe the characteristics of each 
of them. 

   42-43. It produces exhilaration, 
delight, a finer discrimination of the 
qualities of food and drink, desire for 
music, song, jokes and stories. It does 
not impair the intellect or memory and 


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causes no incapacity for sense-pleasu-
res. It pramotes sound sleep as well 
as happy awakening. This is the first 
and the happy stage of alcoholic effects. 

   44-45. Fitful recollection, fitful 
forgetfulness, frequent, indistinct, thick 
and laryngeal speech, indiscriminate 
talk, unsteady gait, impropriety in 
sitting, drinking, eating, and conver-
sation-these are to be known as the 
symptoms of the second stage of 
alcoholic effects. 

   46. After transcending the second 
stage and before reaching the last 
stage there is no impropriety which 
persons of the Raajasic and Taamasic 
nature will not commit. 

 Evils of Intoxication 

   47. Which wise man would ever 
wish to be intoxicated to an extent 
which is as frightful as insanity, even 
as no traveller would select a road 
which leads to an unhappy end 
and which is beset with many 
troubles ? 

   48. Having reached the third 
stage of intoxication, he becomes 
paralysed like a felled tree, with his 
mind submerged in intoxication and 
stupor, and though alive he resembles 
a dead man. 

   49. He does not discriminate bet-
ween or recognise the qualities of 


things or his friends. He does not 
possess even a sense of his own 
happiness for the very sake of which 
alcohol is drunk. 

   50. Which wise man would like 
to attain that state in which he 
cannot discriminate between what 
ought to be done and what ought 
not to be done, between pleasure and 
pain and between what is good and 
what is evil in the world ? 

   51. On account of his addiction, 
he is condemned and censured by all 
people and is regarded an nnworthy 
man by them. He gradually 
develops painful diseases as a result 
of his addiction. 

   52. For all men, all that which is 
contributive of well-being in this life 
and in the other, and happiness in that 
higher life of liberation, is established 
in the perfect tranquility of the mind. 

   53. Wine causes great agitation to 
such a tranquil mind, like the strong 
wind that shakes the trees on a 
bank. 

   54. Ignorant men, who are addic-
ted to and are binded by intoxication 
and overcome by passion and ignorance, 
consider the intoxicated state which 
is a greatly morbid and diseased 
condition, to be a state of happiness. 

   55. These men enslaved and 
blinded by alcoholism, are deprived 


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of wisdom and Sattwic qualities and 
are lost to all goodness. 

   56. Wine is also the cause of 
great delusion, fear, grief, anger and 
death as well as of insanity, toxicosis, 
fainting, epilepsy and convulsions. 

   57. When a man is deprived of 
his very memory, then everything 
that follows upon it, is necessarily 
evil. Thus, those who know the evils 
of drink, condemn the drink-habit 
strongly. 

   58. True and undoubted indeed 
are these great evil effects described 
about wine, if it is unwholesome or 
taken in excese, or taken in disregard 
of the prescribed regulations. 

   59. But wine, by nature, is regarded 
as similar to food in its effects. It is 
productive of disease if taken in 
improper manner, but is like ambrosia 
if taken in proper manner. 

   60. Even food, which is the life of 
living creatures, if taken in improper 
manner, destroys life, while poison, 
which by nature is destructive of life, if 
taken in proper manner, acts as an 
elixir. 

 Merits of Measured drinking 

   61. Wine taken in proper manner 
soon induces exhilaration, courage, 
delight, strength, health, great manli-
ness and joyous intoxication. 


   62-64. It is an appetizer, digestive 
stimulant, cordial, promoter of voice 
and complexion and is nourishing, 
roborant and strengthening. It relieves 
fear, grief and fatigue. It acts as a 
soporific to those suffering from insom-
nia and as a stimulant of speech in 
reticent people. It keeps awake people 
given to excess of sleep, and relieves, 
obstruction in the body-passages, 
renders the mind unconscious of the 
pain of trauma, ligature and other 
kinds of pain and suffering. It acts 
as a cure for the disorders resulting 
from alcoholism. 

   65. It iucreases the enjoyment of 
sense-pleasures and the desire for the 
continuance of such pleasures. Even 
to the very aged, alcohol gives elation 
and delight. 

   66. Thers is nothing comparable 
on earth to the delight derived, during 
the first stage of alcoholic effects, from 
the perceptions of the five senses in 
the case of either the young or the 
aged. 

   67. Alcohol, taken in the proper 
way, is a relaxation for all people 
afflicted with a multitude of sufferings 
and sorrows. 

   68. One should take wine keeping 
always in view the threefold classifi-
cation in each of the six things-food, 
drink, age, disease, vitality and season 


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as well as the triad of morbid humors 
and the triad of the psychic types. 

   69. The correlating of the triads 
of these eight factors is known as the 
proper mode, and the use of alcohol 
taken in such proper mode is never 
attended with the evil effects of 
drinking. 

   70. On the contrary, the person 
enjoys all the good effects ascribed 
to drinking, and without endangering 
his virtue or wealth, he obtains the 
exalted state of the mind. 

   71. Generally, in the first stage of 
intoxication, mental faculties get stimu-
lated. In the second stage, the real 
nature of the man is slightly revealed 
and in between the second and the 
third it is fully revealed. 

   72. As rain stimulates the growth 
of crops and fire reveals the quality 
of gold, similarly drink produces both 
these effects on the minds of men. 

   73. Just as fire reveals the high, 
medium and low quality of gold 
similarly, drink reveals the true 
type of the mind conerned. 

   74-75. That is the Saattwic manner 
of drinking where it is drunk after 
adorning oneself with fragrant flower-
garlands and to the accompaniment 
of song, where the wine has been 
properly prepared and pure, and 
taken along with delicious and clean 


foods and drinks, which is drunk 
always to the accompaniment of 
delightful conversation, which is 
taken in happy mood, which is 
attended with a healthy sense of 
exaltation and which increases 
cheerfulness and love, which has a 
happy termination and which does 
not lead to the extreme state of 
intoxication. 

   76. The people of Saattwic tempera-
ment are not immediately subject to 
the morbid effects of intoxication. 
Wine cannot quickly impair the 
qualities of a strong mind. 

   77. That is the Raajasic manner 
of drinking which causes speech that 
is partly gentle and partly rude, 
partly distinct and partly indistinct 
and varying every moment in its 
nature and is incoherent and generally 
ending in an unhappy condition. 

   78. That is regarded as the Taama-
sic manner of drinking wherein 
speech that is not characterised by 
cheerfulness and affection is indulged, 
where there is no satisfaction in the 
food and drink taken, and which 
terminates in delusion, passion and 
sleep. 

   79. It is therefore that a man 
should recognise, among those given 
to drink, the men of the Saattwic 
type by means of the aforesaid cha-
racteristics and avoid the company of 


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the Raajasic and Taamasic types so as 
to avert the risk of the morbid effects 
of drinking after their manner. 

 Proper Company at drinking 

   80-82. The men of excellent charac-
ter, those that are pleasant of speech, 
that are amiable in expression, that 
are applauded by the good, that are 
versed in the arts, that are 
clean of heart and quick in the grasp 
of things, those that are mutually 
helpful and whose coming together 
is out of sincere friendship, who 
enhance the pleasure of drinking by 
their joy, affection and sweetness of 
manner and the sight of whom causes 
mutual increase of joyous spirits-such 
men indeed make happy companions 
at drink, for, by drinking in their 
company, one enjoys delight. 

   83-84. They indeed are equal to 
the most blessed of men who drink 
in the company of such good friends 
while enjoying the pleasures of lovely 
objects of the five senses of sight, 
smell, taste, touch and hearing and 
paying due heed to the circumstances 
of place and time and with a joyous 
heart. 

   85. Those who are strong of 
mind and body, those who are habitu-
ated to drink after meals, those who 
have inherited the habit of drinking 
and those that have by practice 


got habituated to large doses of drink, 
do not get quickly intoxicated. 

   86-87. Those men who are 
afflicted with hunger and thirst, who 
are debilitated, who are of Vaata or 
Pitta habitus, who are given to dry 
and insufficient and very limited diet, 
who are sluggish in digestion and 
who are mentally weak, those that are 
of wrathful nature, those that are not 
habituated to drink, those that are 
emaciated, those that are greatly 
exhausted and those that are suffering 
from lesions due to alcoholism-all 
such, get intoxicated quickly even 
with a small dose of wine. 

   88. AgniveZa! Hereafter I shall 
describe the etiology, the signs and 
symptoms and the therapeutics of 
each type of alcoholism, in due order. 

 Etiology and Symptoms 

   89-90. If a person that is greatly 
emaciated by indulgence in women, by 
grief, fear, load-carrying, way-faring 
and such other strenuous activity, 
or if a person, habituated to dry, 
scanty and limited diet takes dry and 
highly fermented wine in excess at 
night and loses his sleep, he will 
soon be subject to alcoholism of the 
Vaata type. 

   91. Hiccup, dyspnea, tremors of 
the head, pleurodynia, insomnia and 


P.0814

excessive garrulity are to be known 
as the signs and symptoms of alcoho-
lism of the Vaata-type. 

   92-93. He who takes strong acute 
and acid wine and who habitually 
takes acid, hot and acute articles of 
diet, who is of an irritable tempera-
ment and who loves exposing himself 
to the fire and the sun, will be subject 
to alcoholism mostly of the Pitta-type. 
But in a person with excess of Vaata, 
this alcoholism due to Pitta either 
subsides immediately or causes death. 

   94. Thirst, burning, fever, perspi-
ration, fainting, diarrhea, giddiness, 
and icteric tinge of the body are to 
be known as the symptoms of alcoho-
lism of the Pitta type. 

   95-96. In a person who excessively 
drinks fresh wine, mainly sweet 
or prepared of gur or flour, who is 
habituated to sweet, unctuous and 
heavy diet and who is given to non-
exercise, day-sleep and the pleasures 
of a sedentary and indolent life, soon 
develops alcoholism which is of the 
Kapha-type. 

   97. Vomiting, anorexia, nausea, 
torpor, rigidity, heaviness and chilli-
ness are to be known as symptoms 
of alcoholism of the Kapha-type. 

   98. Whatever qualities in poison 
are observed to provoke the tridis-
cordant condition, the same are also 


observed in alcohol. In poison they 
are of a stronger nature. 

   99. Some poisons kill immediately 
while others lead to diseases. The 
last stage produced in alcoholic into-
xication should be regarded as similar 
to poison in effect. 

   100. Therefore, the symptoms born 
of tridiscordance are observed in all 
types of alcoholism; but owing to the 
predominance of special symptoms in 
each type, they are classified into 
separate categories. 

   101-106. Severe aches in the entire 
body, stupefaction, cardiac pain, ano-
rexia, incessant thirst, fever with the 
characteristics of either cold or heat, 
lightning-like pains in the head, sides 
of the chest, bones and joints; severe 
pendiculation, throbbing, twitchings, 
fatigue, obstruction in the chest, 
cougn, hiccup, dyspnea, insomnia, 
tremors all over the body, disease of 
the ear, eye and mouth, stiffening 
of the waist, vomiting, diarrhea and 
nausea of Vaata, Pitta or of the Kapha 
type, giddiness, delirium, hallucinati-
ons of sight and bewilderment of the 
mind and a feeling of being covered 
with hay, ash, creepers leaves or earth, 
and that of animals and birds crawl-
ing over his body, as well as 
dreaming of unhappy and inauspicious 
dreams--all these, are to be regarded 
as the symptoms of alcoholism. 


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   107. All kinds of alcoholism are 
to be known as resulting from tridis-
cordance; the physician should treat 
first that particular humor which is 
observed to be most predominant in 
alcoholism. 

   108. In alcoholism the line of 
treatment should generally begin with 
the seat of Kapha and then of Pitta 
and lastly of Vaata. 

   109. Diseases arising from wrong-
ful, excessive and too meagre use of 
alcohol are alleviated by taking it in 
the right measure. 

   110-111. When the morbid effects 
of all the alcohol ingested are comp-
letely abated and the body becomes 
lighter and the patient develops a 
craving for drink, the physician, who 
is expert in posology, should give him 
wine which is agreeable to him 
mixed with Sanchal and rock salts 
combined with the juice of the citron 
and ginger and cooled and diluted 
with water. 

   112-113. The excessive drinking 
of acute, acid and irritant wine 
causes dilution of the food-juice by 
excessive secretion, specially of mucus, 
leading to misdigestion and alkaline 
formation leading quickly to internal 
heat, fever, thirst, stupor, giddiness 
and intoxication; wine itself should 
be given to alleviate the condition. 


   114. The alkali quickly changes to 
sweet taste when mixed with the 
acidity of wine (neutralization of alkali 
by acid). Listen now to those qualities 
of wine by which it is considered to 
be the best of acids. 

   115-116. The wine of sour taste is 
regardea to have four after-tastes. 
They are sweet, astringent, bitter and 
pungent tastes. On account of these 
four tastes and the ten-fold actions 
described previoualy, wine is the 
super-most among acid substances. 

   117. The Vaata, blocked up in the 
channels as a result of the precipita-
tion of the morbid humors by alcohol, 
causes acute pain in the head, bones 
and joints. 

   118. In this condition, the patient 
should be given wine in spite of its 
acid quality for the liquefaction of the 
morbid humors by its diffusive, acute 
and hot qualities. 

   119. When taken regularly, wine 
is wholesome, relives the obstructions 
in the channels, regulates the peris-
taltic movement of Vaata, acts as an 
appetiser, stimulates the gastric fire 
and becomes homologatory by habi-
tuation. 

   120. The channels carrying the 
body-fluid being cleared and the 
peristaltic movement of Vaata getting 
regulated, the pains and disorders due 


P.0816

to alcoholism subside and the Vaata 
due to intoxication abates. 

 Treatment in Vata type 

   121-122. For the alleviation of Vaata 
the patient should be given wine 
prepared out of pastry, acidified with 
citron, kokam butter, jujube, pome 
granate and sprinkled with the powder 
of bishop's weed, common juniper, cumin 
and dry ginger, and flavoured with 
sauces and mixed with a little of salt 
and fried barley powder and with 
unctuous articles. 

   123-124. Recognising the symptoms 
of provoked Vaata, the patient should 
be treated with unctuous, sour and 
well prepared meat-juices of common 
quail, partridge, cock and also of pea-
cock and of birds, beasts and fishes of 
the wet-land group and with the meat-
juices of terricolous creatures and the 
tearer group of beasts and birds, mixed 
with cooked Zaali rice. 

   125-126. The patient of Vaata habi-
tus should be treated with unctuous, 
hot, salt, sour and delicious VeZawaara, 
a variety of preparations of wheat 
flour mixed with supernatant part 
of VaaruuNii wine, and with unctuous 
pan-cakes and puffs stuffed with meat 
and ginger and with pan-cakes 
prepared out of black gram. 

   127-128. Or, he may be given the 
flesh of the fatty creatures previously 


described, prepared with black pepper 
and ginger and with a small quantity 
of unctuous substance and without 
any acid, or mixed with pomegranate 
juice; or, he may be given the pudding 
prepared with the three spices, corian-
der, black pepper and ginger, taken 
with genially warm pan-cakes. 

   129-130. When the patient gets 
thirsty after meals, he should be 
given the supernatant part of VaaruNii-
wine as potion, or the juice of pome-
granate or the decoction of pentara-
dices or the water boiled with corian-
der and dry ginger or whey or the 
supernatant part of sour gruel or 
vinegar. 

   131. By the administration of this 
tested remedy in proper dose and 
time, the disorder gets alleviated and 
the patient's vitality and complexion 
promoted. 

   132-135. By various kinds of Raaga 
and SaaDava confections and various 
appetisers which make the patient 
relish the food, meat-preparations, 
vegetables, pastry and barley, wheat 
and Zaali rice and by the aid of inunc-
tion, dry massage, hot baths, cover-
ing with thick blankets and smearing 
the body with the thick paste of eagle-
wood, and fumigation with the aid 
of dense smoke of eagle-wood, and 
by the aid of affectionate embraces 
of women's bodies full of the warmth 
of youth, by the warm clasp of their 


P.0817

waists, thighs and full grown breasts, 
by the warmth of the bed and the 
cover and the warmth of happiness 
and cheer of the interior apartments, 
alcoholism of the Vaata-type gets 
subdued effectively. 

 Treatment in Pitta-type 

   136-137. In alcoholism of the Pitta 
type, wine added with sugar, wine 
made of sugar, grape-wine or any other 
variety of wine, diluted with plenty 
of water mixed with the juices 
of showy dillenia, dates, grapes, sweet 
falsah and pomegranate, and sprinkled 
with roasted paddy flour and cooled, 
should be given as potion, at the 
proper time. 

   138. The flesh of the rabbit, grey 
partridge, antelope common quail, 
and black tailed deer, sweet and sour 
articles and Zaali and SaSTika rice 
should be used in the dietary. 

   139. Or, meat-juice of the goat 
may be prepared with the soup of 
the wild snake-gourd or with the 
soup of math-gram and green-gram 
mixed together and acidified with the 
pomegranate and the emblic myrobalan, 
and may be given. 

   140. Various demulcent drinks, 
gruels and meat-juices may be prepa-
red out of the juices of grapes, emblic 
myrobalan, dates and sweet falsah. 

   141-142. Finding that the Kapha 


and the Pitta are in a provoked 
condition in the stomach of the 
alcoholic patient and that he is afflicted 
with thirst and burning due to 
excessive morbidity, the physician 
should first give him wine, grape-
juice, water or a demulcent drink 
and then immediately administer 
emesis so as not to allow any residue 
to remain in the stomach. In this 
way, the patient gets quickly cured 
of his condition. 

   143. When he desires food, he 
should be given demulcent drink and 
treated systematically with the reha-
bilitation-procedure. As a result, his 
gastric fire gets enkindled and dige-
sts the residual fraction of morbidity 
as also the food. 

   144-145. In conditions of cough, 
spitting of sputum mixed with blood, 
pleurodynia, mammary pain, thirst, 
misdigetion, agitation in the stomach 
and chest, the physician should give 
soup of guduch, large variety of nut-
grass or of snake-gourd, mixed with 
dry ginger, followed by a diet of 
partridge flesh. 

   146. If the patient is afflicted with 
great thirst owing to excessive provo-
cation of Vaata and Pitta, he may be 
given grape-juice to drink, as it is 
cooling and a regulator of the humors. 

   147-147-1/2. When this potion has 
been digested, he should be fed with 


P.0818

a diet of the meat-juice of the goat, 
mixed with sweet and sour things 
and when thirsty, wine should be  
given as post-prandial potion. That 
is the proper dose for the post-pran-
dial potion, which does not adversely 
affect the mind. 

   148-148-1/2. When thirsty, he should 
be given wine frequently and in small 
quantities, diluted liberally with water 
so as to quench his thirst and also 
avoid intoxication. 

   149-150. The patient may drink 
the cold infusion of sweet falsah or 
tooth-brush-tree-water or the cool 
decoction of the tetrad of leafy drugs, 
(ticktrefoil, painted leaved uraria, wild 
green gram, wild black gram) or the 
adipsous juice of nut-grass, pomegra-
nate and roasted paddy. 

   151. The juice of the sour pentad 
viz., jujube, pomegranate, kokam butter, 
yellow wood sorrel and country sorrel, 
used as a mouth-paint, immediately 
quenches the thirst. 

   152-155-1/2. Cooling eats and drinks, 
cool beds and seats, the touch of cool 
breezes and waters, cool gardens, the 
contact of silken garments, sacred 
lotuses, water lilies and precious stones 
and pearls spinkled over with sandal-
scented water cool as the light of 
the moon, the touch of vessels of gold, 
silver and bronze filled with cool 
water and of skin-bags filled with ice 


and exposed to draughts of breeze; 
the contact of women smeared with 
sandal paste and of the breeze heavy 
with the scents of the best varieties of 
sandal; these are recommended in 
alcoholism of the Pitta type. The 
physician may make use of whatever 
other things there are, which have a 
cooling potency. 

   156-156-1/2. In burning due to exces-
sive drinking, the touch of the petals 
of white lily and night-flowering 
lotus, wetted with sandal water as 
also the touch of pleasing objects, is 
beneficial. 

   157-1571/2. The narration of wonder-
ful stories, the pleasant cries of the 
peacock and the rumbling of thunder 
alleviate the effects of intoxication. 

   158-158-1/2. Various devices of shower-
ing water and blowing breezes and  
rooms equipped with cascades should  
be devised by the physician for the 
cure of burning due to alcoholism. 

   159-1591/2. Painting the body with 
perfumed cherry, cuscus grass, lodh, 
fragrant sticky mallow, fragrant poon, 
cinnamon leaves and nut-grass mixed 
with the decoction of sandal, is recom-
mended in burning. 

   160-160-1/2. An application with the 
lather of jujube sprouts, neem and 
soap-nut is beneficial in burning. 


P.0819

   161-1611/2. Suraa-wine, supernatant 
part of Suraa wine, sour curds, pomelo-
juice and honey, along with sour 
conjee are curative of burning and 
are recommended as affusion and 
application. 

   162-162-1/2. Cold water is recommen-
ded for use as affusion, immersion and 
for wetting the fans to allay burning 
and thirst. 

   163-163-1/2. If these procedures are 
administered in proper dose and in 
proper time, alcoholism of the Pitta-
type gets allayed quickly if the patient 
strictly carries out the instructions of 
the physician. 

 Treatment in Kapha-type 

   164-166-1/2. Alcoholism of tbe Kapha-
type should be cured by means of 
emesis and fasting. When thirsty, the 
patient should be given water boiled 
with fragrant sticky mallow or with 
heart-leaved sida or painted leaved 
uraria or yellow-berried nightshade 
or water boiled with all these together 
and dry ginger, and cooled; or the 
physician may give water boiled with 
cretan prickly clover and nut-grass 
or with nut-grass and trailing rungia 
or water boiled with nut-grass alone, 
as each of these causes the digestion 
of the morbid humor. 

   167-169. The same is recommen-
ded as potion in every kind of alco-
holism. This is harmless as a drink 


and is curative of thirst and fever. 
Sugar-wine, honey-wine, old medica-
ted wine or Siidhu-wine, mixed with 
honey and un-unctuous and demulcent 
articles added with the pulvis of 
bishop's weed and dry ginger, may be 
given to the patient as potion, when 
the chyme is digested and he feels 
thirsty. 

   170-170-1/2. He should be given a 
diet of barley and wheat with un 
unctuous soups of horse-gram or of 
dried radish. This soup should be 
cooked thin and given in small quan-
tity. It should be made light and 
mixed with articles which are pungent 
and acid in taste and also with a 
slight quantity of ghee. 

   171-172-1/2. He should be fed on a 
diet of barley along with sour soup 
of snake-gourd or the soup of emblic 
myrobalan mixed profusely with pun-
gent articles. He may also be given 
the sour soup of the three spices or 
of Amlavetasa or meat-juice of the 
goat prepared with sour articles and 
without unctuous substance or the 
meat-juice of JaaGgala creatures in the 
same way. 

   173-173-1/2. Meat should be roasted 
in a dish or an earthen pan till it is 
completely dry, and then pungent, 
sour and salt articles should be added; 
the patient should take honey-wine 
while eating them. 


P.0820

   174-176. In alcholism of the Kapha-
type, the patient should eat, according 
to the strength of his gastric fire, 
at proper meal-time, meat copiously 
flavoured with black pepper and mixed 
with juice of pomelo and large mea-
sure of pungent articles as well as 
with bishop's weed and dry ginger, 
and acidified with the juice of pome-
granate and mixed copiously with 
pieces of green ginger and rolled up 
in a hot pancake; he should then take 
a draught of wholesome wine. 

   177-178. Take Sanchal salt, cumin 
seeds, kokam butter and Amlavetasa 
one part each, cinnamon, cardamom 
and black pepper 1/2 part each, and 
mix with one part of sugar. This 
salt-preparation containing eight 
ingredients (ASTaaGga) is an excellent 
promoter of the gastric fire and 
should be given in alcoholism of 
the Kapha type, for cleansing the 
body-channels. 

   179. The same ASTaaGga salt 
duly diluted with sweet and acid 
juices, adds relish to articles of 
wheat and barley and also to meat 
preparations. 

   180-181. Reduce into paste, along 
with spices, white grapes after taking 
out the seeds, with the juice of 
pomelo or of pomegranate and add 
sanchal salt, cardamom, black pepper, 
cumin seeds, cinnamon bark and 


bishop's weed; this chutney mixed 
with honey, serves as an excellent 
appetiser and promoter of the gastric 
fire. 

   182. A chutney may be prepared 
out of small grapes too in the same 
manner; this chutney, mixed with 
vinegar and liquid gur, acts as a 
digestive-stimulant and digestive. 

   183-184. Prepare separate chutneys 
of mango-pulp and pulp of emblic 
myrobalan, adding coriander, sanchal 
salt, cumin seeds, celery and black 
pepper, gur and honey, and prepare 
it so as to have a predominantly 
sour and salt taste; food articles 
taken along with this chutney are 
relished much and are also properly 
digested. 
   
   185-188. By non-unctuous and hot 
eats and drinks, warm baths, proper 
exercise, fasting, systematic waking 
in the nights, systematic dry baths 
and massages at the proper time, by 
friction massage which is promotive of 
life and color, by wearing heavy 
clothings, by the use of eagle-wood 
paste, by the warm and joyous embra-
ces of young women and soothing 
warm massage of the body by the 
well-trained hands of women-by 
such meanB, the alcoholism of the 
Kapha type abates quickly. 

   189. The measures which are 
described in the case of each morbid 


P.0821

humor separately, should be given in 
skilful combination, for the cure of 
the remaining ten types of tridiscor-
dance, by the wise physician. 

   190. The physician, who is an 
expert in pathology as well as in 
pharmaceutics and knows the science 
of prognosis as regardg curable and 
incurable diseases, cures all curable 
diseases. 

 Beneficial behaviour in Alcoholism 

   191-193. Lovely woodlands, lakes, 
ponds full of lotuses, flowers, clean 
food and drink, cheering companions, 
garlands, varieties of perfumes, clean 
garments, musical notes, endearing 
and delightful company, excellent 
exposition of stories, humorous anec-
dotes and songs and the companionship 
of beloved women act as curatives of 
alcoholism 

   194. Alcohol does not cause morbid 
intoxication without first agitating the 
mind, nor without affecting the body. 
Hence treatment that is mentally 
cheering and enlivening should be 
given. 

 Milk course 

   195. With the above tested reme-
dies, alcoholism gets alleviated; if it 
does not, then a course of milk-diet 
should be resorted to, avoiding the 
use of wine altogether. 


   196-197. Owing to the lightening 
therapy and the digestive, cleansing
and soothing procedures, the patient, 
who gives up wine, becomes weak 
and lightened by the reduction of 
Kapha. For such a patient whose 
systems have been burnt up by alcohol 
and whose morbid Vaata and Pitta are 
increased, milk is as wholesome as the 
rains are for the summer-scorched tree. 

   198. When the disease has been 
cured by the administration of milk 
and the patient has acquired strength, 
the milk-regimen should be gradu-
ally reduced and alcohol substituted 
little by little. 

 Complications 

   199. The person who, after with-
drawal from drink-habit, takes again 
suddenly to drinking excessively 
succumbs to the disorders named 
'Dhwamsaka' and 'VikSaya'. 

   200. These two diseases occurring 
in a person already wasted by disease 
are the most formidable of all diseases. 
Their signs and symptoms and treat-
ment will now be described systema-
tically. 

   201. Excessive discharge of mucus, 
dryness of throat and mouth, intole-
rance to sound, excessive torpor, and 
somnolence should be known to be 
the symptoms of 'DhwaMsaka'. 


P.0822

   202. Cardiac and throat disorders, 
stupefaction, vomiting, body-ache, 
fever, thirst, cough and headache are 
the signs and symptoms of 'VikSaya'. 

   203. The same medicament is 
recommended in these conditions as 
is prescribed in alcoholism of the Vaata 
type, for they occur in emaciated and 
debilitated persons. 

   204. Enemata, potion of ghee, 
courses of milk and ghee, inunction, 
massage, baths, and food and drink 
that are curative of Vaata should be 
resorted to. 

   205. With these procedures 'Dhwa-
msaka' and 'VikSaya' get alleviated. 
No disorder due to alcohol can occur 
in a person who takes wine in proper 
manner. 

   206. The wise man who abstains 
from all kinds of intoxicating drink 
and who has his senses under control, 
is not afflicted with any disorder due 
to alcohol either somatic or psychic. 

 Summary 

   Here are the recapitulatory verses-- 

   207-211. The powers of the 
goddess of wine, the manner of drin-
king wine, the articles of which it is 
prepared, the action of each of them, 
nature of the combination it demands, 
how it intoxicates, combined with 
what qualities it yields excellent 


result, the nature of intoxication and 
the three different stages of intoxica-
tion and their respective chara-
cteristic symptoms, the ill-effects, of 
alcohol as well as its good effects, 
the three modes of drinking and the 
signs and symptoms according to the 
particular type of the mind, the 
nature of the boon-companions at 
drinking that makes for happiness, 
the persons that are intoxicated 
quickly and those that are intoxicated 
slowly, the cause of intoxication and 
its signs and symptoms, how and 
which wine cures the diseases produ-
ced by alcohol and what is the line 
of treatment-all this is elaborately 
described in this chapter on the 
Therapeutics of Alcoholism. 

   24. Thus, in the Section on The-
rapeutics, in the treatise compiled by 
AgniveZa and revised by Caraka, the 
twenty-fourth chapter entitled 'The 
Therapeutics of Alcoholism' is 
completed. 

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CIKITSA STHANA chapter23 index chapter25